Болезни сердца в Украине «помолодели»: как уберечь себя и своих близких

Сегодня болезни сердца стоят на первом месте среди причин смертности в Украине, опережая даже рак.

Такого высокого показателя – 68% – нет ни в одной развитой стране мира, а в Европе и Америке эти цифры на порядок ниже.

Основные причины, по которым инфаркты и инсульты начали «достигать» украинцев в 35-40 лет, – неправильное питание, малоподвижный образ жизни, стрессы и вредные привычки.

В чем причина и как защитить свое сердце, НВ решило узнать у врача-кардиолога.

Кандидат медицинских наук, кардиолог высшей категории и исполнительный директор Всеукраинской ассоциации превентивной кардиологии и реабилитации Ольга Срибная рассказала о сердечно-сосудистых недугах и их причинах, а также о снижении рисков возникновения инфаркта миокарда и других заболеваний сердца.

Общеизвестный факт, что распространенность сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний (ССЗ) увеличивается с возрастом.

Но в последнее десятилетие отмечается значительное снижение возрастного ценза пациентов. Каковы причины такого явления?

К сожалению, Украина – страна, где население мало интересуется вопросами здоровья.

Потребление в пищу трансгенных жиров, соли, сахара, вредит организму и становится причиной многих заболеваний, в том числе, сердечно-сосудистых. Недостаточно внимания уделяется экологическим проблемам, а они тоже сказываются на здоровье.

Образ жизни и факторы внешней среды в сумме ослабляют наш организм и делают его уязвимым для болезней. Поэтому сегодня не только Украина, но и весь мир озабочен тем, как «помолодели» сердечно-сосудистые недуги.

Согласно статистике 2017 года, в структуре распространенности ССЗ процент лиц трудоспособного возраста является значительным и составляет согласно статистическим данным 2017 г. при гипертонической болезни – 36,7 %, при ишемической болезни сердца – 27,8 %, нарушениях ритма сердца – 31,1 %, инфаркте миокарда – 29,7 %.

В целом, у 37 % трудоспособного населения Украины диагностированы ССЗ, то есть каждый четвертый пациент с сердечно-сосудистой патологией имеет возраст от 18 до 64 лет.

Самым частым недугом стала артериальная гипертензия — заболевание системы органов кровообращения.

От него страдают порядка 31% всех людей на планете согласно данным 2015 года. Причем этот показатель значительно вырос с 2010 – тогда статистика говорила о 26% населения.

На втором месте по распространенности находится ишемическая болезнь сердца – от нее страдают 22,3 % населения. 2% из этих случаев — острый инфаркт миокарда.

В общей структуре смертности показатель ССЗ в Украине на 30% больше, чем в Европе, и составляет 68%. Для сравнения: в США от болезней сердца и сосудов умирает порядка 47,7% людей.

Исследования показали, что ССЗ наиболее подвержены люди с избыточной массой тела и ожирением, курящие, имеющие высокий уровень артериального давления и холестерина, глюкозы в крови, а также люди, ведущие малоподвижный образ жизни.

Согласитесь, одна или несколько этих характеристик присущи практически каждому представителю трудоспособного населения.

Продукты с большим содержанием легкоусвояемых углеводов приводят к набору веса, развитию эндотелиальной дисфункции и нарушению обмена холестерина.

В сумме эти изменения могут способствовать развитию заболеваний сердца и сосудов.

А вот алкоголь, при всем своем негативном влиянии, способствует процессам перекисного окисления в организме.

Но лишь в умеренных и строго рассчитанных дозах, причем далеко не всегда.

Говоря о питании, «разумной» могу назвать «среднеземноморскую» диету.

Запомнить ее несложно: малое содержание поваренной соли, больше клетчатки, которая содержится в овощах и фруктах, морепродуктов и некрепленых вин в умеренных количествах (не более 200 мл ежедневно).

Наиболее вредными считаются продукты, которые содержат промышленные транс-жиры — «фастфуд», замороженная пицца, тесто, маргарин и спреды.

Не стоит налегать на соль и сахар. Рекомендованная суточная доза соли составляет 5 г, сахара — 50 г (12 чайных ложек).

Осторожным стоит быть и с картофелем – в нем содержится крахмал, а максимальное количество красного мяса должно находиться в пределах 300-500 грамм в неделю.

Особое внимание следует уделить «культуре питания»: кушать медленно, обязательно завтракать, ужинать не позднее трех часов перед сном.

При этом, никакого смартфона, планшета и телевизора.

Формула здоровья проста: правильное питание + контроль веса + достаточная физическая активность (общепринятая норма — 150 мин. средней физической активности в неделю) + отказ от курения + нормальный уровень глюкозы и холестерина в крови + нормализация артериального давления + психологическое здоровье и хорошее настроение.

В сумме это имеет положительный результат для организма и защищает от рисков заработать ССЗ.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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