Украина стала «Меккой» суррогатного материнства

В последнее время в Украине становится все более востребованной услуга суррогатного материнства, и страна превращается в один из главных мировых центров данного бизнеса.

Об этом пишет Вєсті-UA со ссылкой на ВВС.

Особое внимание иностранных семейных пар наша страна начала привлекать после того, как данную репродуктивную услугу запретили для них в Индии.

Причиной такого решения стали частые случаи эксплуатации женщин из бедных семей. Что касается украинок, соглашающихся выносить и родить чужого ребенка, то их на такой шаг чаще всего толкает желание обеспечить безбедное проживание своих семей.

Так, подобной историей делится суррогатная мать Анна. Когда ей было 18 лет, она впервые узнала о подобном виде бизнеса из телевизионной программы. Девушка жила и училась в Каменце-Подольском (Хмельницкая область), ее семья по местным стандартам была довольно обеспеченной.

Но Анне хотелось самостоятельно заработать на собственную машину, дом. Поэтому суррогатное материнство показалось студентке хорошим шансом осуществить свои мечты. Но для участия в программе нужно было обязательно иметь собственного ребенка.

По украинскому законодательству, женщина обязательно должна быть сама мамой, поскольку это уменьшает вероятность того, что она будет иметь сильные чувства к ребенку, которого вынашивает для других родителей.

Через несколько лет Анна родила собственного ребенка и снова вспомнила о суррогатном материнстве. Работая администратором в местной гостинице, она зарабатывала $200 в месяц. А став суррогатной мамой для словенской супружеской пары, в свои 22 года она получила $20 тыс. за девять месяцев. Эта сумма включала плату за услугу и средства, выделенные на другие сопутствующие расходы.

«Моя мама меня поддержала, близкие друзья тоже поняли. Благодаря этому для меня все прошло хорошо и довольно легко», — рассказывает Анна.

Однако если в ее случае все прошло успешно, то некоторым женщинам, решившим стать суррогатной матерью, приходилось сталкиваться с серьезными трудностями. Так, у многих из них возникали осложнения, которые вовремя не лечили, состояние здоровья кандидаток проверяли недостаточно тщательно, из-за чего впоследствии появлялись проблемы.

Сейчас 24-летняя Анна готовится потратить еще один год своей жизни на то, чтобы стать второй раз суррогатной мамой для пары из Японии.

На этот раз она выбирала клинику тщательно, проводя целые дни на специализированных интернет-форумах. Женщина оставила свою работу и не думает сейчас о дальнейшем обучении или карьере.

Ее цель — купить дом для себя и своего ребенка. За первый «суррогатный» гонорар Анна сделала ремонт в том доме, где сейчас живет с родителями. Близкая родственница женщины, учитывая ее опыт, тоже готовится стать суррогатной мамой.

«Права женщины, которая является суррогатной мамой, ни в коем случае не должны нарушаться. Они должны гарантироваться абсолютно на том же уровне, что и права суррогатных родителей. Впрочем, довольно часто считают, что тот, кто платит, тот и музыку заказывает», — отмечает юрист ОО «Ла Страда» Марина Легенькая.

В последние годы психологи и юристы этой общественной организации получают ежегодно около 15-20 обращений от суррогатных матерей с просьбой помочь им.

Клиники репродуктивных технологий отправляют некоторых женщин на консультацию к психологу. Но, как рассказывают сами суррогатные мамы, не все из них проходили такие собеседования.

Поэтому Легенькая советует кандидатам на участие в программах суррогатного материнства крайне внимательно изучать свои контракты и убеждаться, что их права прописаны четко и подробно, в том числе оплата в случае выкидыша.

Что касается роли государства в этом процессе, то в Украине она является довольно абстрактной. Так, глава парламентского комитета по вопросам здравоохранения Ольга Богомолец заявила, что сейчас суррогатное материнство находится фактически вне контроля государства.

По ее словам, это грозит возникновением ситуаций, когда суррогатная мама может отказаться отдавать ребенка, а родители могут не захотеть его забирать.

Ответственность за регулирование этих вопросов депутат возлагает на Министерство здравоохранения.

 

Коммерческое суррогатное материнство помимо Украины разрешено и в США, Грузии, России, но условия, как и стоимость услуг в разных странах отличаются.

Конкурентными преимуществами Украины на рынке услуг суррогатного материнства являются высокая квалификация врачей, качество медицинских технологий и сравнительно низкие цены.

Парламентарий Богомолец отмечает, что тот факт, что украинские женщины все чаще решаются на суррогатное материнство, является тревожным сигналом для страны.

«Сегодня из-за стремительного падения уровня жизни украинцы ищут любые возможности заработать деньги. На то, что правительство улучшит экономическую ситуацию в стране, они уже не рассчитывают», — отмечает политик.

С другой стороны, суррогатное материнство — это ценный шанс стать родителями для многих супружеских пар: как иностранных, так и украинских.

 

Тем временем, эксперты в области суррогатного материнства отмечают, что спрос на него и дальше будет расти, а украинские клиники имеют достаточно ресурсов, чтобы обеспечивать соответствующее предложение.

Но в то же время они предупреждают, что существует опасность того, что «конвейерный подход» к делу будет побуждать ставить финансовые интересы выше благосостояния и здоровья женщин, суррогатных матерей.

К тому же, именно такие тенденции заставляли многие страны мира ограничивать или запрещать коммерческое суррогатное материнство.

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